Attachment is the bonding or special relationship that develops between the primary caregivers (most often but not always parents) and the infant. Attachment has a very important role to play in emotional development. When the parents offer sensitive caregiving the child develops an internal sense of security. Sensitive caregiving involves the way in which parents perceive the child’s communications, make sense of them in terms of the meaning they have for the child’s internal world, and respond in a timely and effective manner to meet the child’s needs. Inevitably there will be parental responses that are not in attunement with the child’s needs but the parent will recognize this and ‘repair’ the rupture. Over time the experience of consistent, predictable and attuned communication allows the child to establish a secure base from which to go out and explore the world.